Toyota has revealed a whole host of new technologies that will be featured with the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA), which include new transmissions and engines. This is another step in a massive expansion of TNGA-based powertrain units, which will make their way into approximately 80% of Toyota and Lexus vehicles within the next five years.

Starting with the engines, a new 2.0 litre Dynamic Force Engine has been added to the mix, joining the existing 2.5 litre unit already found in the latest Camry. As a conventional engine, the 2.0 litre boasts a maximum thermal efficiency of 40%, and 41% when hybridised – identical to the 2.5 litre unit.

Among the features present include electric VVT-iE on the intake cam for better response and a D-4S port- and direct-injection system. The piston’s skirt sliding surface have also been subjected to mirror finishing in order to reduce friction, while narrow crosshatch grooves are created on the skirt surface by lasers to improve scuff resistance.

Laser-clad intake valve seats meanwhile, make the intake port compatible with a higher intake flow rate (better output) and tumble flow (better fuel consumption). There’s also a variable cooling system with an electronic thermostat and water pump to ensure appropriate heat management.

On its own, the engine has a maximum output of 169 hp at 6,600 rpm and 205 Nm of torque at 4,800, following a 13:1 compression ratio. In hybrid applications, the compression ratio goes up to 14:1, with output being rated at 143 hp at 6,000 rpm and 180 Nm at 4,400 Nm.

Speaking of hybrid systems, the new 2.0 litre Dynamic Force Engine will benefit from the Toyota Hybrid System (THS II), and will be used in the next-generation Corolla hatchback/Auris. The carmaker says the new 2.0 litre hybrid system is an improvement over the current 1.8 litre system being used, but has not provided output figures for now.

Instead, it says the 2.0 litre hybrid system has a new power control unit (PCU) that is 20% smaller, and 10% lighter than the 1.8 litre system. This allows the PCU to be placed directly above a new motor-generator transaxle, where the synchronous AC motor features a new rolling-coil structure with fewer wires and newly developed magnetic steel.

A new parallel reduction gear format helps to reduce the loss in the transaxle by up to 25%. The motor itself has a maximum output of 80 kW (107 hp) and 202 Nm of torque. Power is supplied to the motor from a new nickel-metal hydride battery, which is smaller and lighter thanks to a revised battery pack structure and more compact cooling system.

The capacity remains identical to that found on the 1.8 litre system – 6.5 Ah – but the battery has a higher number of cells (180 vs 168) and operates on a higher voltage as well (216 V vs 201.6 V).

Moving on to transmissions, the big news here is Toyota’s Direct Shift-CVT, which it claims is the first to employ a launch gear in a CVT. The launch gear helps improve transmission efficiency in lower gear ratios where belt efficiency is poor, for instance, starting from a full stop.

When setting off, the transmission system utilises gear drive, resulting in better acceleration while at the same time resolving the momentary sluggish feeling that was previously present. Once on the move, a highly-responsive vane pump switches the system from gear drive to belt drive.

The new setup enables the adoption of wider gear ranges of up to 7.5 for the 2.0 litre class, which Toyota claims will be a class-leading figure. Using a launch gear also results in reduced input load, allowing for smaller belt and pulley components to be used. This, along with a narrower belt angle (9 degrees from 11 degrees), result in shifting speeds that are 20% faster.

According to Toyota, the Direct Shift-CVT offers shift performance equal or greater than DCTs produced by other companies, and better fuel efficiency by as much as 6%.

For markets that demand a manual option like Europe, a new six-speed unit has been introduced. The new unit is 7 kg lighter than the existing one, and is 24 mm shorter as well thanks to thinner hubs, a revised gear stopper, a thinner case and omission of needle bearings.

Aside from improved packaging, the transmission also features the iMT (Intelligent Manual Transmission) system that provides automatic rev matching on upshifts and downshifts. The 40 kg six-speed unit is capable of handling torque figures of up 280 Nm.

Toyota has already announced plans to introduce nine engines (17 variations), four transmissions (10 variations) and six hybrid systems (10 variations) by the end of 2021. The new 2.0 litre Dynamic Force Engine, 2.0 litre THS II system, Direct Shift-CVT and new six-speed manual transmission are four of the planned components joining previously-introduced ones.

But wait, there’s more as two new all-wheel drive systems have also been introduced. The first – Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD – is for use with petrol engines, and allows torque to be distributed to the left and right rear wheels according to driving conditions. If needed, ratchet-type dog clutches on both the front and rear wheel shafts can be used to stop the drive system rotations, which transmit driving force to rear wheels when in 2WD mode.

For hybrid vehicles, there’s the new E-Four system, which continues to use an electric motor to drive the rear wheels. The new system increases total torque to the rear wheels by 30% compared to existing versions, while a new control system optimally distributes torque to the rear wheels based on the driving conditions. These systems are part of three new AWD systems (eight variations) that Toyota has planned for use in passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles.